Interventional radiology

Interventional radiology - a subspecialty of radiology - is a way to diagnose cancers and other conditions without major surgical interventions, having first-line therapeutic indications in many diseases. Interventional radiology uses imaging-guided imaging to perform minimally invasive procedures. Interventional radiology uses a number of techniques based on radiological image guidance such as ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging, to perform the necessary procedure for patients.

Interventional radiology allows for the safe and effective removal of samples from various organs (biopsy) for diagnostic purposes, as well as the removal of fluid accumulation (drainage) from the body or blood clots as a result of cancer treatment.

Radiologie interventionala

What is interventional radiology?

Interventional radiology has the role of diagnosing and treating various conditions using minimally invasive techniques, reducing risks for patients, as well as improving medical outcomes.

Using a wide range of techniques that rely on the use of guided images such as radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography, procedures are minimally invasive alternatives to open and laparoscopic surgery. Interventional radiology procedures usually involve inserting a needle into the body using image guidance and accessing a specific organ (liver, kidney) or vessel (artery or vein), then guiding a wire and catheter through the needle to that area. Later the wire and catheter can be guided through the body to perform whatever procedure is needed.

Interventional radiologists are doctors who specialise in radiology and interventional therapy. The essential skills of an interventional radiologist are interpreting diagnostic images, manipulating and use of needles, tubes or catheters to navigate intravascularly or directly percutaneously under imaging control.

Interventional radiology procedures can be divided into diagnostic procedures and therapeutic procedures.

Types of interventional radiology

Interventional radiology is of two types: vascular and non-vascular. The range of conditions and organs that can benefit from imaging-guided therapeutic and diagnostic procedures is varied and constantly evolving and includes diseases of the vascular, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, genitourinary, pulmonary, musculoskeletal, etc

Arterial vascular interventional radiology

  • uterine artery embolization – for uterine fibroids
  • angioplasty/stenting
  • endovascular aneurysm repair
  • prostatic artery embolization – for benign prostatic hypertrophy
  • embolization for gastrointestinal bleeding

Venous vascular interventional radiology

  • embolization of varicoceles
  • arterio-venous fistuloplasty
  • thrombolysis
  • thrombectomy

Non-vascular interventional radiology

  • ureteral stent placement
  • percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
  • imaging-guided biopsies
  • imaging guided drainage
  • cholecystostomy

Oncological interventional radiology

  • percutaneous tumour ablation
  • portal vein embolization
  • preoperative tumour embolization
  • trans-arterial chemoembolization